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What we are looking for: We are seeking research papers. Submissions should include an abstract, methodology, results, and discussion.


There needs to be places for people who can't be anywhere else. Both deinstitutionalization and rampant normalization have made matters worse for the seriously/chronically mentally disordered. For those afflicted with personality disorders for example, these people are able to do significant damage under the guise that their behavior is not illegal. But it is not the case that all such legal behavior is acceptable. Stalking, harassment, fraud, aggressive attention-seeking behavior, infidelity, emotional abuse, many of these are soft offenses, and while some are legal offenses, they are easier for the afflicted person to conceal in the darkness. Additionally, psychological matters beyond deviance such as dyscontrol require serious exploration and consideration for how they can best be treated with dignity. 

   What is the solution for many afflicted by personality disorders living in obtuse deviance and for dyscontrolled people afflicted by other mental disorders? Reinstitutionalization. A place to go when you can't be anywhere else. Reinstitutionalization is a physical construct. It requires buildings and infrastructure. It is also an ideological concept. The public needs to approve of reinstituionalization. Normalization of mental illness in the form of the romanticization of mental disorders stands in the way. However, ethics and ethical treatment must always be at the forefront of reinstitutionalization.

Explore these matters. Let's work towards a better understanding of the "is" of mental health, and rather than a desperate hope of a fantasy "ought," let's strive for an understanding of the obtainable ought to be–an inclusive society that provides proper care and support for all its members.

Let's create a safer world. Send us your research on these terrains!


For well researched, empirically based explorations on ethical reinstitutionalization and the indignity of mental disorder normalization we offer $200 per published piece. Out of our own pocket, we will cover the cost of peer review.


To aid researchers in their efforts on this matter, we present below a draft research proposal:

Seeking the Spotlight: Fan Clubs, Personal Worlds, and Personal Universes in the Quest for Attention and the Role of HPD Traits

1. PROPOSED TOPIC: This research seeks to understand the nature and significance of the "fan clubs" or close circles of individuals diagnosed with Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD). It will examine the dynamics of these relationships, the reasons behind their formation, the mutual benefits and potential drawbacks derived, and the potential implications for the well-being of the individual with HPD. 

Amidst the age of digital revolution and pervasive social media platforms, the conventional boundaries delineating personal relationships and “fan” dynamics are becoming increasingly blurred, prompting an inquiry into the multifaceted nature of modern affiliations and the influence of HPD traits within these contexts. The core characteristic of HPD is a widespread display of heightened emotions coupled with a constant desire for attention (American Psychiatric Association, 2023). Building from this foundation, it becomes imperative to explore how this pervasive desire for attention manifests in the context of "fan clubs," personal spheres, and wider social universes. By delving into these dynamics, the aim is to understand how individuals with HPD traits navigate these spaces, seeking validation and attention, and how these environments respond and evolve in turn. 

Online forums offer glimpses into the personal experiences of those with HPD traits. A revealing post by AliceWonders (2011) on Psych Forums states, “My guys know about my disorders, they know that I am dangerous and could use/hurt them at any given time and have been warned accordingly. They choose to take that risk and be there for me because they think I'm worth it. Do you have any idea how great that is? To be WORTH something?????” This digital testimony brings to light the complex dynamics between individuals with HPD traits and their "fans" in digital spaces. Our research seeks to delve into the implications of such interactions on platforms like OnlyFans and Snapchat, particularly concerning mental well-being and attention-seeking behaviors inherent to HPD. 

The attention that people with HPD seek is centrality and drawing upon the broader realm of social networks, the concept of digital centrality becomes highly relevant. Freeman's "betweenness" model (1977; 1979, as cited in Clifton, Turkheimer, & Oltmanns, 2009) illuminates the individuals who act as significant "gatekeepers" in networks (Scott, 2000, as cited in Clifton et al., 2009). Clifton et al. (2009) emphasize the association of certain pathological traits, especially within Cluster B scales, with heightened social connections. This interplay presents a modern perspective on HPD traits in today's interconnected digital world.

By examining the impact of digital platforms on HPD traits and the relationships with their digital fans, this study can provide insights into the challenges and potential pitfalls faced by both groups. 

2. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: The nature and significance of fan relationships differ based on the context and presence of HPD traits.

NULL HYPOTHESIS: The dynamics and significance of fan relationships are consistent across different groups, regardless of HPD traits.  

During this study, several observations should be made. First, there should be a direct correlation between the presence of HPD traits and the nature of fan relationships. Individuals with pronounced HPD traits may display a unique dynamic with their fan base or close social circles, possibly driven by their need for attention and validation. As the intensity or visibility of these HPD traits varies, so might the dynamics of these fan relationships. The context, be it mainstream celebrities, online influencers, adult entertainers, or private individuals serves as the independent variable in this study, while the nature and dynamics of fan relationships act as the dependent variable. The controlled variable or constant will be the type of relationship (e.g., online fan-following, close personal circles, etc.). The nature and dynamics of the fan relationship may depend on the context and presence or intensity of HPD traits.

3. PARTICIPANTS: A diverse group of participants exists with those who have "fan clubs" or close follower relationships. This includes influencers, artists, celebrities, and notably, dominatrixes/doms, egirls/eboys, and adult entertainers from platforms like OnlyFans. Additionally, "personal devotee circles" like the AliceWonders example will be explored. Unlike traditional fan bases that revolve around public figures or celebrities, personal devotee circles gravitate around private individuals who, for various reasons, command attention and devotion from a select group. Diversity will be ensured across gender, age, and other socio-demographics.

Outreach for participant recruitment will span various platforms, from entertainment agencies to communications on social media, Craigslist listings, and dating apps, targeting both high-profile personalities and everyday users. Special strategies will be devised for platforms like Snapchat due to its unique interpersonal dynamics. Prioritizing confidentiality, discretion, and participant well-being, neither usernames nor legal names will be documented in our findings.

The rationale for this selection stems from the digital transformation of interpersonal relationships, where even personal connections can mirror "fan" dynamics. Platforms like Snapchat have shown how regular relationships can take on fan-like traits. Meshi, Turel, and Henley (2020) discovered that admiration, sociability, and negative social potency are associated with problematic Snapchat use. However, only negative social potency correlated with problematic Facebook use, emphasizing varied user dynamics across platforms. This study therefore aims to holistically understand contemporary fan dynamics. 

4. SAMPLING METHOD: A Stratified Random Sampling (SRS) technique will be employed to differentiate between various fan dynamics groups, spanning from conventional celebrities to individuals on platforms like OnlyFans and Snapchat.

The objective of this study is to provide an in-depth analysis of interactions and relationships in varying contexts where HPD traits are discernible. Participants are classified based on their public exposure levels and platforms of influence, including but not limited to mainstream celebrities, online influencers, adult entertainers, and individuals garnering niche follower bases on platforms like Snapchat, OnlyFans, and even dating apps. This diverse segmentation, achieved through SRS, ensures a rich representation from each category. Such an approach is pivotal for capturing the wide-ranging dynamics of "fan clubs" and intimate social relationships, thus unveiling the nuances of attention-seeking behaviors associated with HPD in contemporary digital settings. Outreach will span multiple platforms and methodologies, from direct online community engagement to targeted notifications, ensuring that potential participants across different segments are well-informed of this research opportunity. Even though the study might seem constrained in its reach, the digital-first approach ensures a broad relevance across geographical boundaries. By employing SRS, we are positioning this research to minimize estimation errors, directing our focus not necessarily on the entirety of the online populace but specifically on decoding the intricate web of relationships and dynamics influenced by HPD traits.

5. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES: The process of collecting data will begin with the selection and outreach phase. Potential participants across diverse platforms like OnlyFans and Snapchat will be identified. This involves actively engaging with a spectrum of users, from influencers and celebrities to those with niche fan bases. Upon identification, targeted notifications about the study will be made on these platforms, emphasizing participant confidentiality and the significance of their contribution. Online community forums, social media groups, and direct messages will play pivotal roles in this active recruitment.

As potential participants express interest, an initial screening will be conducted. This will take the form of an online survey or a screening interview to ensure that potential participants meet the study's criteria, notably the presence of Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) traits and active engagement with a follower base. Once participants are confirmed, they'll be provided with an electronic informed consent form. This document will detail the nature, purpose, and requirements of the study, ensuring they fully grasp their rights, the intended use of their data, and the steps that will be undertaken to safeguard their identity.

Data collection will combine both quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants will be administered standardized questionnaires designed to gauge the extent of HPD traits. For deeper, qualitative insights, in-depth interviews will be conducted, potentially utilizing secure video-conferencing tools, reflecting the predominantly digital nature of the relationships we're investigating.

Further, with the consent of participants, their public digital interactions will be monitored, which will provide a valuable perspective on the real-world dynamics of their engagements. These interactions, encompassing tone, frequency, and content, will be analyzed for patterns and nuances that might escape a traditional interview setup.

Data storage and security remain paramount. All collected data, be it from interviews or digital interactions, will be stored on encrypted drives or in secure cloud storage platforms. Rigorous steps will be undertaken to ensure all identifiable markers, such as names or usernames, are coded or anonymized. Finally, once data collection concludes, participants will be furnished with a summary of the study's findings. Feedback channels will be established, allowing participants to share their perspectives on the initial results and address any residual concerns. Depending on the insights' depth, periodic follow-ups will be instituted, ensuring a thorough and comprehensive understanding of the subject matter. 

6. DATA ANALYSIS: In the quest to understand the intricate dynamics between individuals with HPD traits and their "fan clubs," the initial step involves using descriptive statistics to provide a foundational understanding. This would entail utilizing measures of central tendency like the mean, median, and mode, which offer insights into the common tendencies of HPD traits across participants. Additionally, understanding the variability of these traits becomes crucial. For this, measures of dispersion such as range, variance, and standard deviation come into play. Furthermore, frequency distributions will be instrumental in deciphering how often certain behavioral patterns or tendencies emerge within the participant pool, offering a clear portrait of our data set.

In this study focusing on HPD and fan dynamics, determining the presence and strength of correlations is pivotal. The hypothesis suggests that the nature of fan relationships varies based on the context and presence or intensity of HPD traits. To assess this correlation, Pearson's correlation coefficient, which quantifies the linear relationship between two continuous variables (Field, 2017), will be utilized. This tool will help gauge the linearity and strength of associations across various contexts. Transitioning from identifying basic linear relationships, it's crucial to explore the multi-variable landscape.

Expanding the approach, multiple regression analyses will be employed. This analytical method allows for the understanding of the combined influence of multiple variables on a dependent variable. For instance, when assessing the relationship between attention-seeking behaviors and interactions on platforms like OnlyFans or Snapchat, multiple regression can evaluate the collective influence of various factors. The distinction aids in understanding whether one platform may intensify the exhibition of HPD traits or if each platform interacts differently with these traits. Such analytical techniques, typified in studies such as Green (1991), offer a comprehensive view into the multifaceted relationships being examined. Through this approach, it will be easier to decipher how platform choice and HPD trait intensity collaboratively shape fan relationship dynamics.

7. CONTRIBUTION TO THE FIELD: The potential outcomes of this study on the dynamics between individuals with HPD traits and their digital "fan clubs" can deeply inform and shape various aspects of society. For individuals diagnosed with HPD, understanding their digital interactions can pave the way for better therapeutic approaches, potentially resulting in healthier online dynamics and interactions.

For specific groups, such as digital platform operators, content creators, and mental health professionals, these findings can serve as a guiding light for implementing features or interventions that can foster healthier interactions. Especially on platforms where traits associated with HPD or related personality disorders, such as narcissism, can become accentuated—a dynamic that's been previously explored in the context of social networks, emphasizing the roles individuals play within these networks (Czarna, Dufner, & Clifton, 2014).

On a societal level, the digital age has ushered in a paradigm shift in how people understand and navigate social relationships. Drawing upon the broader realm of social networks, the study taps into the critical concept of digital centrality, as emphasized by Freeman's "betweenness" model and the work of Clifton et al. (2009). Their findings underscore the significant role of "gatekeepers" in networks and the association of certain pathological traits with heightened social connections. In this digital era, understanding how HPD traits manifest and influence online interactions and relationships is pivotal. Not only does this study offer a fresh perspective on HPD in today's interconnected world, but it also continues the legacy of research on understanding personality disorders in a digital context.

In conclusion, the potential outcomes of this study serve as a beacon. Whether advocating for informed platform policies, refining therapeutic approaches, or advancing the collective understanding of HPD in the digital age, the findings promise to shape discourse, policy, and practice in meaningful ways. 

8. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS: The study on the dynamics between HPD-diagnosed individuals and their digital "fan clubs" has several anticipated limitations. Firstly, defining "fan clubs" in a continuously evolving digital space is challenging, potentially blurring the lines between personal relationships and "fan" dynamics. The research hypothesis, while focused on variations in fan relationships based on HPD traits, might overlook other influential factors like cultural or socioeconomic elements.

Additionally, the data collection approach, relying on self-reported digital interactions, could introduce biases, with participants possibly presenting skewed perceptions. The voluntary nature of participation might lead to selection bias, where engaged participants inherently differ from those who decline. While aiming for diverse representation, achieving a perfectly balanced sample across all demographics remains a challenge. Moreover, the ever-changing popularity of digital platforms could affect the study's long-term relevance.

In essence, while promising valuable insights, the study's findings should be interpreted within the context of these acknowledged limitations.





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